Mechaniczne właściwości i mikrostruktura zapraw z wieloskładnikowego cementu, poddanego korozji siarczanowej
More details
Hide details
Department of Construction, Kırsehir Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Kırşehir Ahi Evran University, Kırsehir 40100, Turkey
Department of Civil Engineering, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale 71451, Turkey
Publication date: 2020-08-02
Cement Wapno Beton 25(2) 137–153 (2020)
Sulfates are a significant chemical components that may lead to failures of cement concrete composites. The present study is dedicated to analyzing the effects of sulfate on the microstructure of cement composite mortars. For this purpose, cementing composite specimens were prepared with 20% pozzolan mixture [fly ash + granulated blastfurnace slag + bottom ash] by mass of cement, together with the reference additive-free specimen of cement concrete, without any mineral admixtures. These cementing composite mortar specimens were then treated for 2, 7, 28, 90, and 360 days in tap water and 10% sodium sulfate solution. The microstructure of the additive-free mortar and composite cement mortar, partially replaced with 20% pozzolan, was then investigated using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that increasing curing time also increases the formation of C-S-H [calcium silicate hydrate] gel in the cement mortar, when the microstructural changes in the cement are explored in detail. Ettringite formation [3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2 O] in the specimens cured in 10% Na2SO4 was also noticed, in the present experiments.
V.G. Papadakis, C.G. Vayenas, M.N. Fardis, Physical and chemical characteristics affecting the durability of concrete, Mater. J. 88, 186-196 (2011).
I. Demir, O. Sevim, E. Tekin, The effects of shrinkage-reducing admixtures used in self-compacting concrete on its strength and durability, Constr. Build. Mater. 172, 153-165 (2018).
K.P. Mehta, Durability-critical issues for the future, Concr. Inter. 23, 27-33 (1997).
I. Demir, S. Guzelkucuk, O. Sevim, Effects of sulfate on cement mortar with hybrid pozzolan substitution, Eng. Sci. Techn. Int. J. 21, 3, 275-283, (2018).
N. Bouzoubaa, M.H. Zhang, V.M. Malhotra, Mechanical properties and durability of concrete made with high-volume fly ash blended cements using a coarse fly ash, Cem. Concr. Res. 31, 10, 1393-1402 (2001).
D. Mostofinejad, F. Nosouhian, H. Nazari-Monfared, Influence of magnesium sulphate concentration on durability of concrete containing micro-silica, slag and limestone powder using durability index, Constr. Build. Mater. 117, 107-120 (2016).
H.Y. Aruntaş, The potential of fly ash usage in construction sector, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 21, 193-203 (2006).
T.Y. Huang, P.T. Chiueh, S.L Lo, Life-cycle environmental and cost impacts of reusing fly ash, Resour. Conserv. Recy. 123, 255-260 (2017).
P.K. Mehta, Concrete: Structure, properties and materials, Prentice Hall, New York, U.S.A., 2005.
Neville AM, Properties of concrete (4th ed.), Longman, London, U.K., 1995.
Z. Yu, G. Ye, The pore structure of cement paste blended with fly ash, Constr. Build. Mater. 45, 30-35 (2013).
Z. Yu, J. Ma, G. Ye, K. Van Breugel, X. Shen, Effect of fly ash on the pore structure of cement paste under a curing period of 3 years, Constr. Build. Mater. 144, 493-501 (2017).
L.H. Martin, F. Winnefeld, E. Tschopp, C.J. Müller, B. Lothenbach, Influence of fly ash on the hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Cem. Concr. Res. 95, 152-163 (2017).
I. Kalkan, J.H. Lee, Effect of shrinkage restraint on deflections of reinforced self-compacting concrete beams, KSCE J. Civil Eng. 17, 1672-1681 (2013).
J. Yu, C. Lu, C.K. Leung, G. Li, Mechanical properties of green structural concrete with ultrahigh-volume fly ash, Constr. Build. Mater. 147, 510-518 (2014).
S. Miyazawa, T. Yokomuro, E. Sakai, A. Yatagai, N. Nito, K. Koibuchi, Properties of concrete using high C3S cement with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, Constr. Build. Mater. 61, 90-96 (2014).
B.S. Cho, H.H. Lee, Y.C. Choi, Effects of aluminate rich slag on compressive strength, drying shrinkage and microstructure of blast furnace slag cement, Constr. Build. Mater. 140, 293-300 (2017).
W. Zhang, H. Choi, T. Sagawa, Y. Hama, Compressive strength development and durability of an environmental load-reduction material manufactured using circulating fluidized bed ash and blast-furnace slag, Constr. Build. Mater. 146, 102-113 (2017).
A. Gholampour, T. Ozbakkaloglu, Performance of sustainable concretes Containing very high-volume class-F fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag, J. Clean. Prod. 162, 1407-1417 (2017).
M. Rafieizonooz, J. Mirza, M.R. Salim, M.W. Hussin, E. Khankhaje, Investigation of coal bottom ash and fly ash in concrete as replacement for sand and cement, Constr. Build. Mater. 116, 15-24 (2016).
M. Singh, R. Siddique, Properties of concrete containing high volumes of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate, J. Clean. Prod. 91, 269-278 (2015).
A. Wongsa, Y. Zaetang, V. Sata, P. Chindaprasirt, Properties of lightweight fly ash geopolymer concrete containing bottom ash as aggregates, Constr. Build. Mater. 111, 637-643 (2016).
C.J. Lynn, R.K.D. Obe, G.S. Ghataora, Municipal incinerated bottom ash characteristics and potential for use as aggregate in concrete, Constr. Build. Mater. 127, 504-517 (2016).
Z. Owsiak, J. Zapała-Sławeta, The lithium nitrate effect on the concrete expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction in concrete of gravel aggregate, Cement Wapno Beton, 20, (1), 25-31 (2015).
I. Demir, O. Sevim, I. Kalkan, Microstructural properties of lithium-added cement mortars subjected to alkali–silica reactions, Sādhanā, 43, (7), 112 (2018).
I. Demir, O. Sevim, Effect of sulfate on cement mortars containing Li2SO4, LiNO3, Li2CO3 and LiBr, Constr. Build. Mater. 156, 46-55, (2017).
Z. Owsiak, P. Czalplik, Limitation of the effects at alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete by the addition of zeolite, Cement Wapno Beton, 18, (5), 310-320, (2013).
P.K. Mehta, Mechanism of expansion associated with ettringite formation, Cem. Concr. Res. 3, 1-6 (1973).
TS EN 197-1, Cement–Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara, 2012.
TS EN 196-1, Methods of testing cement–Part 1: Determination of strength, Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara, 2016.
ASTM C1012 / C1012M-15, Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, U.S.A., 2015.
Ö. Sevim, İ. Demir, Optimization of fly ash particle size distribution for cementitious systems with high compactness Constr. Build. Mater. 195, 104-114 (2019).
Ö. Sevim, İ. Demir, Physical and permeability properties of cementitious mortars having fly ash with optimized particle size distribution. Cem. Concr. Comp. 96, 266-273 (2019).
S. Diamond w “Hydraulic Cement Pastes: their structure and properties”, Proc.of Conf. at University of Sheffield, April 1976, s. 2, Cement and Concrete Ass., Wexham Springs 1976.